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Cartesi, a Layer-2 Platform for the Development and Deployment of Scalable DApps

Every computation that may influence a transaction, whether or not performed on-chain or off-chain, should be reproducible by all parties taking part in a validating role. reproducible process models must be self-contained and settled. In other words, the whole state for the computation and therefore the entire sequence of modifications to the current state should be totally specified and agreed upon.

Sadly, real computing architectures weren't designed with these constraints in mind and thus aren't reproducible. Blockchain platforms solve this problem by using custom virtual machines (VMs) once process smart contracts. These VMs are reproducible, however additionally domain-specific.

On the one hand, they provide native support for features helpful to smart contracts (e.g., accounting, rollback, associative memory, authentication, cryptography, etc). On the other hand, they lack valuable features found in all-purpose architectures (e.g., floating-point arithmetic, virtual storage, interrupts, etc).


The Needed of a Reproducible Computation Model that Supports Modern Operating Systems

The revolution in software system capability the world seasoned over the previous few decades may be attributed to 2 key factors. the primary is an exponential increase within the speed at which modern hardware platforms could process vast amounts of information. The second, and equally necessary, is that the ever-increasing expressive power of software development environments.

Indeed, general-purpose computations don't happen in isolation. Rather, they're assembled from inter-dependent building-blocks created by a worldwide collaboration of software developers. These elements and services consider standard-library facilities hosted by an underlying OS (memory management, process management, file systems, networking, etc). it's the OS that ties everything together.

Such facilities aren't obtainable from the free-standing programming languages and compilers that typical blockchains provide to smart contract developers. reproducibility and scalability considerations have created on-chain computation environments terribly restrictive. to spice up productivity and widen the scope of blockchain development, we need a reproducible computation model that supports modern OS. Visit: https://cartesi.io/


Cartesi, a Layer-2 Platform for the Development and Deployment of Scalable DApps

Cartesi DApps are hybrid, i.e., they include both blockchain and off-chain elements. The off-chain element runs in a network of Cartesi Nodes, every representing the interests of a DApp user. The off-chain of the element is further divided into 2 modalities.

Native computations run directly within the host hardware. though native computations have access to the node’s full process power (including GPUs), the computations aren't reproducible, a minimum of not a priori. reproducible computations run instead inside Cartesi Machines that are controlled by the Cartesi Node. These are general, totally self-contained Linux systems, that run on a settled RISC-V design.

Nodes act with Cartesi Machines by means that of a well-defined host interface. within the blockchain, a Cartesi DApp could specify reproducible off-chain computations to be performed over massive amounts of off-chain information.

Cartesi Nodes could automatically follow these specifications to perform the computations off-chain. DApp developers could instruct the nodes to submit results or verify and dispute results submitted by others. From the blockchain’s perspective, undisputed computations take negligible resources. Even within the case of disputes, the settlement cost is just the logarithm of the storage and time needed throughout the computation.


With Cartesi, Developers Can Make Their DApps More Portable Across Different Blockchains

Off-chain, Cartesi Nodes ne'er experience more than twice the area and time needed by the computation. during this method, Cartesi virtually eliminates the gap in storage and computation power between smart contracts and traditional computer programs. Moving computations off-chain brings many benefits beyond scalability.

Cartesi Machines enable DApp developers to use all the programming languages, tools, libraries, software, and services they're already familiar with. Moreover, the method within which computations are formulated is agnostic to the underlying blockchain. By isolating all the advanced smart-contract logic into reproducible off-chain computations, developers could create their DApps more portable across completely different blockchains. Visit: https://cartesi.io/

Core of Cartesi, It includes the complete specification for the Cartesi Machine, the host interface for controlling it, the blockchain interface for specifying advanced off-chain computations and therefore the Cartesi Node interface for performing and verifying these computations.

Higher-level tools, interfaces, and a variety of use cases designed on top of this core functionality are going to be described in a future document. detailed documentation on all interfaces, as well as the development environment for Cartesi Nodes and Cartesi Machines, are going to be obtainable from the Cartesi SDK.




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