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Proof-of-Formulation, an Innovation comes from FLETA

Consensus refers to a common understanding of block generation, in particular, it signifies who generates the next block or who chooses the blocks out of the generated blocks in the chain process. The prior consensus used a method that disseminated blocks throughout the network for the arbitrary users to mine. However, this requires high recovery of confirmation or block time, as miners are able to generate subsequent blocks only when the new blocks are disseminated throughout the whole network. As a way to deal with this problem, only a select number of miners were picked in order to achieve lower block time. 

FLETA has come up with a PoF (Proof-of-Formulator), allowing fast generation and dissemination of blocks by using Formulator reward sequence to designate the mining target and narrow down the dissemination range. Additionally, the existence of the observer node allows immediate authentication and prevents fork of blocks. Anyone can make the formulator, so the door is open to all. Low block time can be achieved as the mining sequence of the formulator is fixed, making the dissemination range of new blocks very small.

Rank Table

RankTable calculates the score on all FormulationAccount and ranks the scores. All node has a RankTable and because the score is calculated through transaction and chain height, the list is the same. The authority to generate new blocks is given to the Formulator with the highest rank. When the block is generated and thus included in the score, the sequence changes and the authority can go to another. 

A score of RankTable consists of Phase and Hash. The phase is a value related to time, showing how many times the RankTable has turned. The new formulator always participates in the RankTable with a LargestPhase+1 value. After the generation of blocks, the formulator’s phase is increased so that a reasonable sequence is secured. The details are as follows Score : uint64(Phase) << 32 + uint64(binary.LittenEndian.Uint32(hash[:4])). This signifies that every Formulator is guaranteed with one mining opportunity in every phase and different formulator sequence is provided in different phrases, in order to prevent potential attack or collusion of and against Formulators.  


In order to prepare for DDoS attack, every formulator accesses the observer node, therefore hiding the IP of Formulators and maintaining systematic sequence and process. Thus, the observer node assumes the responsibility of all costs of protecting DDoS and security, Observer node is able to provide protection with high efficiency and with less cost, as it consists of a relatively smaller amount. This, in turn, enables the observer node to receive real-time information about the Formulator’s activity. The observer node can increase transparency by revealing node status and structure information to formulators and users. If the turn comes for the unconnected node, TimeoutCount can play its role to continue the mining process by excluding such unconnected nodes. Formulators whose turn is skipped, are aware of such, making users able to monitor with ease.

Block Generation

The block generation is performed according to the agreed generation order among the formulators, and the block reward goes to the formulator that generated it. The block generation order is synchronized using the aforementioned formulator synchronization. Within a balanced network the algorithm is managed and directly assesses connections to make agreements of block generation order correspond across the network. Block generation is only possible by the first ranked node here and since a signature is required, only the first ranked node can create forked blocks. This means that with the observer nodes confirming in real time, forks will never occur.

Fork Prevention

When the highest rank formulator generates a block and receives the signatures of the observer nodes, the observer nodes sign and store the block. When the signature is signed by the synchronization group, it receives the block and the blockchain progresses so that if a fork block occurs, it cannot go past the observer node, preventing a fork from happening by design. The concept is that when the formulator order is correctly configured, the 1st rank node only has the right to generate and sign the block, at which phase making two or more blocks to fork the blockchain will be stopped by the observer nodes. Therefore, if the formulator rank order is synchronized, it is possible to only receive blocks that are not forked, simply by verifying the block generator and observer node signatures. The generated block , therefore, is decisive, and all transactions approved by the observer node are immediately confirmed.

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  1. I have been following FLETA for a while. I really like their solutions to scale, and the work they have been doing on blockchain interoperability.
    So far they have done 15 000 TPS which is a massive step. I believe blockchain interoperability will be a key feature in the industry, this will make it much easier for users to adopt crypto. The first to deploy this will have a first mover advantage.

  2. Agreed, the need for a big index is also diminishes, alleviating the burden when searching for a transaction. Verification is made via signature, so its validity is secured even without using a transaction hash. This, instant transaction searching, reduces index and data volume.